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2007, Cilt 31, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 239-241
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First Report of Pennella balaenopterae Koren and Danielssen, 1877 (Copepoda: Pennelidae) from Turkey
Erdoğan ÇİÇEK1, Ahmet ÖKTENER2, Osman Bahadır ÇAPAR3
1Gaziantep University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Biology, Sahinbey, Gaziantep
2 Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Directorate of Protection and Control of İstanbul, Department of Aquatic Products, Erenköy, İstanbul, Türkiye
3Çukurova University, Administrate of Computing, Adana, Türkiye
Keywords: Balaenoptera, parasitic copepod, Pennella, Mediterranean Sea
Abstract
A parasitic copepod, Pennella balaenopterae Koren and Danielssen, 1877 (Copepoda: Pennelidae), has been reported from the fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus (Cetacaea: Mysticeti), which was found dead on the Avluk beach (Yumurtalik seaport, Iskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey) in 6 May, 2002. This is the first report of Pennella balaenopterae in the Turkish seas.
  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • References
  • Introduction
    Their large size and mesoparasitic life have raised a large attention to Pennellidae 7. The species of this family members embeded deeply into the blubber of baleen whales, with the posterior end of their bodies trailing free from the host. The plump and juicy body extremity is plucked from the host and eaten raw, and the “sweet” contents of the blood-filled neck are sucked out 2. The most recent account and discussion of their effects on the fish has been published by Kabata 8. The genus Pennella Oken, 1816 are the largest of parasitic crustacea, and except for a single species infecting the blubber and musculature of cetaceans, are found as adults embedded in the flesh of marine fish and mammals.

    In the previous studies, only two species belonging to Pennellidae were reported from Turkish Seas. First one is Lernaeolophus sultanus 10 and second one is Pennella instructa 11. Little is known about parasitic copepods of Turkish Seas. In this study, a new parasitic copepod, Pennella balaenopterae, reported from Turkish Seas.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • References
  • Methods
    A fin whale stranded alive ashore on Avluk beach (36º 45' 31" N - 35o 41' 58" E, Yumurtalık Bight, İskenderun Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey) in 6 May, 2002 (Figure 1). Species identification was done as Balaenoptera physalus (Cetacaea: Mysticeti) according to Jefferson et al. 6. Parasites were taken out from the tissue of the host in the coast and fixed in 70% alcohol. The photos of the whale and parasite were taken in the sampling site. Number of the parasite in each 50 cm2 was counted for 2 different part of the body of the whale (one was between left side of the body, another one was right side of the body). Total number of the parasite was calculated using these subsamples.


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    Figure 1: Avluk Beach

    In the laboratory, length of the 22 sampled specimens were measured nearest in cm and original illustration of the parasite was drowned under the stereo binocular microscopy. Identification of the parasite was done according to Hogans 5 and Yamaguti 17.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • References
  • Results
    The fin whale (B. physalus) stranded alive ashore on Avluk beach (Fig 1) was 11.10 m in length. Skeleton of the whale is exhibited in Natural History Museum of General Director of Mineral Research and Exploration in Ankara (Turkey).

    Lots of embedded parasitic copepods were observed on the skin of the whale and were taken out easily from the body by hands. When taken out the parasite from the body, a hole occurred on the skin of the whale (Fig. 2A, B).


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    Figure 2A: Parasite in the tissue of the whale, B: Hole of the parasite in the skin of the whale.

    Pennella balaenopterae (Fig. 3) was identified according to Hogans 5 and Yamaguti 17. Adult females are characterized by a loss of external segmentation and obscuration of swimming appendages. Pennella species are recognized by the branched outgrowths on the posterior part of their trunks. The mandibles are prolonged, forming a sucking tube for the mouth through which the species feed. Adults also have paired, segmented sensory antennae. Five pairs of thoracic legs are found in the species, which are more modified in females than males 13,16.


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    Figure 3: Pennella balaenopterae, habitus.

    Number of the parasite was counted as 7 for the left side and as 15 for the right side of the body per 50cm2. According to subsamples total number of parasite was calculated as 65 for the left side and 138 for the right side, and 203 for whole body of the whale. Mean total length of parasites was calculated as 28±3cm.

    Pennella balaenopterae was originally described on Balaenoptera spp. in the Iceland, Faroe Islands by Koren and Danielssen in 1877. Pennella balaenopterae is the largest known copepod in the world. The presence on Mediterranean fin whales of ectoparasitic copepods Pennella sp. has been known for a long time 9. Such parasites are commonly observed on fin whales in the Ligurian-Corsican-Provençal Basin, and are occasionally quite abundant and uniformly distributed over the visible part of the surfacing whales' body. Cases of particularly severe infestations by Pennella are known in weakened specimens, such as the whale which stranded alive near Livorno in October 1990. Accounts of endoparasites in Mediterranean fin whales are quite rare 9. Infestation by the parasitic copepod P. balaenopterae was found on B. physalus in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean 1 and in Galicia (Spain) 12.

    In addition to fin whale, an infestation by P. balaenopterae was found in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) 3, Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) 4 and minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) 14,15. Infestation prevalence of 68.4 % for P. balaenoptera on minke whales (B. acutorostrata) from the Western North Pacific Ocean was reported by Uchida and Araki 15.

    In the previous studies, there were only two species reported belonging to the Pennellidae from the Turkish Seas. Lernaeolophus sultanus (Nordmann, 1839) was reported on the mouth base of Diplodus vulgaris from the Mediterranean by Öktener and Trilles 10 and Pennella instructa Wilson, 1917 was isolated on the base of the anal, pectoral fins and in the muscle tissue of the abdomen of Xiphias gladius from the Aegean Sea by Öktener and Leonardos 11.

    Acknowledgement
    Special thanks to Mustafa ŞİRİN (fisherman in the Yumurtlalık Bight) for given to us some information about stranded fin whale.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • References
  • References

    1) Abaunza P, Arroyo NL, Preciado I, 2001. A contribution to the knowledge on the morphometry and the anatomical characters of Pennella balaenopterae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae), with special reference to the Buccal Complex. Crustaceana, 74 (2): 193-210.

    2) Cuesta JA, Anger K, Gonzalez-Gordillo JI, 2004. Edible Copepods. Monoculus, The Newsletter of the World Association of Copepodologists, 47: 16-17.

    3) Dailey MD, Haulena M, Lawrence J, 2002. First report of a parasitic copepod (Pennella balaenopterae) infestion in a pinniped. J Zoology and Wildlife Medicine, 33 (1): 62-65.

    4) Dallay M, Vogelbein W, 1991. Parasite Fauna of Three Species of Antarctic Whales with Reference to Their Use as Potential Stock Indicators. Fishery Bulletin, 89 (3): 355-364.

    5) Hogans WE, 1987. Morphological variation in Pennella balaenoptera and P. filosa (Copepoda: Pennellidae) with a review of the genus Pennella Oken, 1816 parasitic on Cetacea. Bull Mar Sci, 40: 442–453.

    6) Jefferson TA, Leatherwood S, Webber MA, 1993. Marine mammals of the world. FAO Species Identification Guide, FAO and UNEP, Rome, p.320.

    7) Kabata Z, 1979. Parasitic Copepoda of British Fishes. The Ray Society, The British Museum, London, 152: 468, 2031 figs.

    8) Kabata Z, 1984. Diseases caused by Metazoans: Crustaceans. In: O. Kinne (Ed.), Diseases of Marine Animals 4, Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, 73-183.

    9) Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara G, Zanardelli M, Jahoda M, Panigada S, Airoldi S, 2003. The fin whale Balaenoptera physalus (L. 1758) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammal Rev, 33 (2): 105–150.

    10) Öktener A, Trilles JP, 2004. Two Lernaepodids and One Pennellid Copepod Determined on Three Marine Fishes Collected in Turkey. Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 10: 143-152.

    11) Öktener A, Leonardos I, 2006. First Report of Pennella instructa Wilson, 1917 (Pennellidae) and Ergasilus mosulensis Rahemo, 1982 (Ergasilidae) from Turkey. 10th International Congress on the Zoogeography and Ecology of Greece and Adjacent Regions, Patras, Greece. p.85.

    12) Raga JA, Sanpera C, 1986. Ectoparasites and epizoites of Balaenoptera physalus (L., 1758) in Atlantic Iberian waters. Invest Pesq (Barc.), 50 (4): 489-498.

    13) Roberts L, Janovy J, 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. U.S.: McGraw Hill.

    14) Uchida A, Araki, J, 2000. The Ectoparasites and Endoparasites in the Minke Whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata from the Western North Pacific Ocean. J Japan Vet Med Assoc, 53: 85-88.

    15) Uchida A, Kawakami Y, Yuzu S, Kishikawa S, Kuramochi T, 1998. Prevalence of Parasites and Histopathology of Parasitisation in Minke Whales from the Western North Pacific Ocean and Southern Sea of Okhotsk. Report of the International Whaling Commission, 48: 475-479.

    16) Wilson CB, 1935. Parasitic copepods from the Pacific coast. Am Midland Nat, 16: 776-797.

    17) Yamaguti S, 1963. Parasitic Copepoda and. Branchiura of fishes. Interscience Publishers, New York, p.207.

  • Top
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • References
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